In the adult musculoskeletal system, deformities and malalignment can develop and cause corresponding discomfort and pain, often with crunching and cracking of the joints.
This can be caused by either inadequately addressed malformation or malalignment during childhood or injury. Some deformities can develop based on malnourished bone, obesity, benign tumors, and metabolic problems.
Depending on the degree of malalignment and discomfort and after careful and detailed diagnostic tests, the appropriate therapy is chosen. A wide range of treatment options is available, from physiotherapy, to insoles and braces, to surgery.
Realignment surgery is often performed using fixation with plates, nails, or an external fixation frame.